Citations and Sources

Citations and Sources

Anderson, J. (2012). Elements of Airplane Performance. In Introduction to flight (7th ed., pp. 440-506). New York:

McGraw Hill.

This textbook builds upon our fluid flow understanding and goes deeper into the efficiencies of airline flight. This source describes the effects and different studies done throughout time to improve the efficiency of airliners and also explains the range and endurance of commercial jetliners.

Cengel, Y., & Cimbala, J. (2013). External Flow: Lift and Drag. In Fluid mechanics: Fundamentals and applications (Third ed.). McGraw Hill.

This textbook provides the basic equations necessary for fluid flow calculations. The equations of particular interest are for the coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag. It also provides a basic understanding of fluid flow analysis and how to utilize FEA for this research.

“Horizontal Stabilizer – Elevator.” Horizontal Stabilizer – Elevator. Ed. Nancy Hall. NASA, 5 May 2015. Web. 15  Nov. 2015.

This article simply provides insight into the attributes and characteristics of the rear stabilizer. What it affects, what it does, how it works and why it is necessary. It provides a basis of information before we delve into winglets in general.

Jenkinson, L., & Marchman, J. (2003). Aircraft Design Projects For Engineering Students. Burlington: Elsevier.

This source provides some insightful experiments that people can run in a quick, down and dirty environment to help gain understanding of airliners and how they work. In chapter 7, there is an experiment which resembles something similar to what I am trying to recreate here, except more basic. It is a source to draw from and try to build an experiment off of to check and see if we have a viable research project.

Kuhlman, John, and Paul Liaw. “Winglets on Low Aspect Ratio Wings.” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. (1989): 456-69. Aerospace Research Council. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

The aspect ratio is an equation that creates a ratio between the span and chord lengths of a wing. For rear stabilizers, we can see that the aspect ratio is smaller, so this article provides some possible insight into how much of an effect winglets will have on the rear portion of the plane.

“Winglets.” Winglets. Ed. Nancy Hall. NASA, 5 May 2015. Web. 14 Nov. 2015.

This article provides general insights into how winglets work, and how they are beneficial towards fuel saving techniques for modern day aircraft. It explains the induced vortex of winglets, and provides equations that we can use to minimize the effects of the drag through the introduction of winglets into the tips of wings.